The mats, which the researchers believe are likely similar to the type that evolved in some early lagoons during the Ediacaran Period, some 542 million years ago (the time most agree multicellular animals first began to appear) are comprised of a bottom layer of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, which is covered by a top layer of blue green algae, which produces the oxygen through photosynthesis. They found oxygen levels of between 0.25 and 0.45 atm near the mats, compared to 0.10 at or near the surface.The findings are important because fossil evidence suggests mobile animals first evolved in early salty lagoons that should have been too salty to produce normal plant growth.Of course there is one hiccup in the theory, and that is the fact that the mats only produce oxygen during the day when the sun is shining; oxygen levels around the mats plunge at night, leaving the lagoons a very inhospitable place. However, at Los Roques, there are some insect larvae that exist inside the mats that for the most part shut down at night; hibernating, if you will, and thus can survive with almost no oxygen when it’s dark. Gingras and his team support the notion that perhaps some early life forms could have done the same, though others are not quite ready to jump on that bandwagon.Another issue is that the results are based on the notion that the mats that exist today are in fact the same as the mats that existed way back then; a bit of a leap seeing as how there is really no evidence to support such a supposition. Thus, in order for the ideas suggested in this paper to gain credence, evidence of some similarity will have to be found through further research. © 2010 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Ancient bacterial mats may have been key to first mobile animals (2011, May 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-ancient-bacterial-mats-key-mobile.html More information: Possible evolution of mobile animals in association with microbial mats, Nature Geoscience (2011) doi:10.1038/ngeo1142AbstractComplex animals first evolved during the Ediacaran period, between 635 and 542 million years ago, when the oceans were just becoming fully oxygenated. In situ fossils of the mobile forms of these animals are associated with microbial sedimentary structures1, 2, 3, and the animal’s trace fossils generally were formed parallel to the surface of the seabed, at or below the sediment–water interface4, 5. This evidence suggests the earliest mobile animals inhabited settings with high microbial populations, and may have mined microbially bound sediments for food resources6, 7, 8. Here we report the association of mobile animals—insect larvae, oligochaetes and burrowing shore crabs—with microbial mats in a modern hypersaline lagoon in Venezuela. The lagoon is characterized by low concentrations of dissolved O2 and pervasive biomats dominated by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria, both analogous to conditions during the Ediacaran. We find that, during the day, O2 levels in the biomats are four times higher than in the overlying water column. We therefore conclude that the animals harvest both food and O2 from the biomats. In doing so, the animals produce horizontal burrows similar to those found in Ediacaran-aged rocks. We suggest that early mobile animals may have evolved in similar environments during the Ediacaran, effectively exploiting oases rich in O2 that formed within low oxygen settings. Explore further Modern animal-biomat associations from Los Roques. b, Potential Upper Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian associations. Image illustration: Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo1142 (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers from Canada studying the highly salty coastal lagoons at Los Roques, Venezuela and the microbial mats found at the bottom of the sea there, have discovered that oxygen levels in the mats, at least in the day time, are high enough to support the development of mobile life forms. Led by University of Alberta palaeontologist, Murray Gingras, the team writes in Nature Geoscience, that levels of oxygen on the ocean floor were up to four times as high as that near the surface; high enough to support the development of mobile sea life; which the team believes could explain how early life forms could have evolved in waters with high salt concentrations. How plants drove animals to the land
Scientists know that the first modern humans to migrate to Europe were hunter-gatherers—they arrived approximately 40,000 years ago. But then, the hunter-gatherers were slowly replaced by new migrants from the Near East approximately 9,000 years ago—migrants that were farmers. But the path they took has been under dispute by historians. In this new effort the researchers sought to lay the arguments to rest by conducting an exhaustive DNA study of the people that live in the region today.The team collected DNA samples from 964 people living in 32 different places in the region—from northern Africa, to the Middle and Near East to islands in the Mediterranean Sea, to the European continent. Each of the DNA samples was scrutinized for markers known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). People from the same place tend to have SNPs in common, which makes tracking their migration possible by looking for such markers in different populations. Analysis of the samples allowed the researchers to trace the movement of early people from the fertile crescent in the Middle East, to the Near East and into Turkey, and then as they sailed to nearby islands off the southern coast and finally, as they arrived on the southern shores of mainland Europe. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The researchers note that despite the lack of archeological evidence, such as boats used by the migrants, the DNA analysis allowed for near certainty in plotting the course of Neolithic migration of early farmers to Europe. The SNPs showed very clearly, they claim, the path that the people took, thus, island hopping may be considered the main, if not only route that was taken. That would rule out such possibilities as a northern land route from Turkey to Europe through the Bosphorus strait, or farmers sailing directly to Europe from the Middle East. Explore further More information: Maritime route of colonization of Europe, Peristera Paschou, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1320811111AbstractThe Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.Press release Genetic markers in modern populations indicate the Neolithic migrants who brought farming to Europe traveled from the Levant into Anatolia and then island hopped to Greece via Crete and then to Sicily and north into Southern Europe. Credit: Modified NASA map Mitochondrial DNA of first Near Eastern farmers is sequenced for the first time (Phys.org) —A multinational team of researchers has concluded that Neolithic farmers migrated to Europe from the Near East via the islands that dot the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Greece. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they used genetic analysis on a large number of volunteers in the Middle and Near East and Europe to trace the path of early migration into Europe. © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Study indicates Neolithic people from Near East migrated to Europe via island hopping (2014, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-06-neolithic-people-east-migrated-europe.html A coastal route of colonization of Europe. Credit: PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320811111
Located some 4,000 light years away from the Earth, CoRoT-20 is a star of spectral type G2V, similar in size and mass to our sun. In 2011, astronomers found a planet orbiting this star on a short-period eccentric orbit. The exoworld, which received designation CoRoT-20 b, is about the size of Jupiter but four times more massive. The exoplanet, classified as a “hot Jupiter,” circles its host every 9.24 days at a distance of approximately 0.09 AU from it.Now, a team of researchers led by Javiera Ray of the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland, have found a new substellar object in this system, also on an eccentric orbit, but with a much longer orbital period than that of CoRoT-20 b. The discovery was made as a result of follow-up observations of the CoRoT-20 system conducted between November 2011 and November 2017, using the HARPS and SOPHIE spectrographs.”In this paper, we report a new substellar companion orbiting CoRoT-20, thanks to six years of additional observations obtained with HARPS and SOPHIE spectrographs,” the researchers wrote in the paper.Observations carried out by Ray’s team show that the newly detected object, designated CoRoT-20 c, has a minimum mass of 17 Jupiter masses. Due to its mass, CoRoT-20 c was initially classified as a brown dwarf. Although the boundary between planet and brown dwarf is poorly defined, astronomers generally agree that brown dwarf are substellar objects at least 13 times more massive than Jupiter.According to the study, CoRoT-20 c is separated from its parent star by approximately 2.9 AU. The planet has an orbital period of 4.59 years and orbital eccentricity of 0.6.Notably, orbital parameters of the newly identified brown dwarf make CoRoT-20 the first known system with an eccentric “hot Jupiter” and an eccentric massive companion.”CoRoT-20 is the first identified system with an eccentric hot Jupiter (e ≥ 0.2) and an eccentric massive companion with a fully probed orbit,” the paper reads.The researchers noted that the newly detected brown dwarf interacts with the “hot Jupiter,” adding that the currently high eccentricity of CoRoT-20 b is likely entirely due to the presence of CoRoT-20 c.Due to this interaction, the CoRoT-20 system is perceived by Ray’s team as an excellent candidate to test tidal migration models. So far, astronomers have identified at least three migration mechanisms that can explain the existence of close-in “hot Jupiters” on eccentric orbits. Therefore, further observations of CoRoT-20 c, during its next transit, which is expected to occur in late 2020, could help us advance our understanding of these mechanisms. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. COROT’s exoplanet hunt update More information: A 4.6-year period brown-dwarf companion interacting with the hot-Jupiter CoRoT-20 b, arXiv:1807.01229 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1807.01229AbstractWe report the discovery of an additional substellar companion in the CoRoT-20 system based on six years of HARPS and SOPHIE radial velocity follow-up. CoRoT-20 c has a minimum mass of 17 ± 1 MJup and it orbits the host star in 4.59±0.05 years, with an orbital eccentricity of 0.60 ± 0.03. This is the first identified system with an eccentric hot Jupiter and an eccentric massive companion. The discovery of the latter might be an indication of the migration mechanism of the hot Jupiter, via Lidov-Kozai effect. We explore the parameter space to determine which configurations would trigger this type of interactions. Radial velocity curve (top) and residuals (middle) of CoRoT-20 from FIES (orange), HARPS (purple) and SOPHIE (blue). Generalized Lomb-Scargle (GLS) periodogram (bottom) of the radial velocities after subtraction of the two orbits. False alarm probability levels are plotted for 50, 10 and 1 percent. Credit: Ray et al., 2018. © 2018 Phys.org Explore further Citation: Brown dwarf detected in the CoRoT-20 system (2018, July 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-brown-dwarf-corot-.html An international group of astronomers has discovered a new substellar object in the planetary system CoRoT-20. The newly identified object was classified as a brown dwarf due to its mass, which is greater than that of the heaviest gas giant planets. The finding is reported in a paper published July 3 on arXiv.org.
Exploring the mythical and magical world of Shamans, Anu Malhotra’s documentary The Shamans of the Himalayas unveils the mystery that surrounds their life. Millennium Post speaks to the filmmaker about the eye-opening experiences she encountered while helming the documentary.This documentary will be telecast as a four part series on Discovery Channel this month.What prompted your interest in the Shamanistic traditions of Kullu Manali?Manali is one of my favourite travel destinations. Whenever I went there, I made friends and listened to their stories. I encountered scenes on the streets that fired my imagination. Out of curiosity, I asked people about the things I observed. They told me that in these areas, every village has its own deity and each deity, its own ‘Gur’ or shaman. That’s where the idea of my documentary emerged. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’It took you over two years to make this documentary, tell us what kept you going on during that phase?The overview of the Shamanistic culture itself is very fascinating. It’s almost a faraway world from our city-centric lives; a world where everything is alive- the rocks, the leaves, and the atmosphere around. That is what physics says as well. Shamanistic traditions emphasize upon an interconnected web of life; you disturb its balance, and its repercussions come back to you. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou had already researched extensively on this theme before you hit the ground. Still, during the course of the film, was there anything that left you flabbergasted? Share an anecdote with us. I was shooting Gur Tularam, a shaman of goddess Hadimba in the Kullu valley. Hadimba is a demon goddess. When Tularam goes into a trance, it’s terrifying to see him as he turns violent over a period of time. I could feel his waves of energy travelling to me and I was left flabbergasted with goosebumps on my skin. Shooting this four-hour -long documentary was a massive exercise. I remember chasing a procession of Shamans. I was almost jumping around with my small camera to keep up with their pace. There has been a pattern to your documentaries; you seem to be travelling to a new state with every fresh documentary you make. I started my television career in the 90s with travel shows. During that time, I used to drive or travel around the country all the time. Wherever I went, I found a new culture, a different way of life. This is what inspires me to document the fragile and vulnerable aspects of life in India for posterity. If these cultures get lost with the passage of time, a way of life will be lost, leaving us empty for forever.
Noted film maker, artist and social worker, Shri Muzaffar Ali and renowned sitarist, Debu Chaudhuri released Birju Maharaj: The Master Through My Eyes at a function organised at the India International Center. Birju Maharaj, who was present on the occasion, later spoke about his life and passion to regale the audience.Also present at the function were Jawar Sircar, CEO Prasar Bharati, and leading personalities in the field of art and theatre. The publication aims to highlight the work and life of noted artists and is authored by his disciple, Saswati Sen. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Birju Maharaj is not only an unmatched Kathak dancer but also a superb vocalist, a generous teacher, and an imaginative painter. The book reveals how this icon of Indian dance, who is a mentor for thousands and an inspiration for countless people across the globe, is actually an unassuming, simple person outside his artistic world. Accompanied by rare photographs, this is a heartfelt tribute to a man who, among his many achievements, has spread awareness about the classical dance form of Kathak, not only in India, but abroad while touching innumerable lives along the way. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThis memoir of the legendary Kathak maestro Pandit Birju Maharaj presents layers of his personality—his simplicity, modesty, generosity—as witnessed by one of his foremost disciples, Saswati Sen, who has known him for over forty-five years.Saswati Sen, regarded as one of the best exponents of the famous Lucknow gharana of Kathak, is the driving force behind Kalashram, Pandit Birju Maharaj’s dream institution. She has received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the Sanskriti Award, the Shringar Mani Award and the Critic’s Recommendation Award. She has performed at the RIMPA (Ravi Shankar Institute for Music and Performing Arts) festival in Varanasi, the Kathak Prasang in Bhopal and Jaipur and the prestigious Khajuraho Festival of dance, among others.After her initial training under Reba Chatterjee Vidyarthi at the Bharatiya Kala Kendra in New Delhi, she was awarded the National Scholarship in 1969 by the Ministry of Culture. She then graduated to become one of the foremost disciples of Pandit Birju Maharaj.
Against the backdrop of rapid urbanization and growing metro culture which has created vulnerability of the traditional artistes, the project presents a compelling vision for indigenous design, the redesign of new economies centred on innovation, well being and compassion. The project emphasise values like, How the wisdom of the past can be made accessible to people.The project presents both traditional and new instruments based on Indian sitar, Burmese saung harp, Thai xylophone, Korean kayagum, Chinese guzheng and pipa, Vietnamese dan tranh, Javanese and Balinese gamelan, chanting and others. New instruments with embedded computation demonstrate interactions through gesture, touch, pull, movement, gaze and kinesthetic action. In addition, through responsive computing, people by their position, gesture, and movements control musical events in the exhibition environment.The museum landscapes exhibition builds on a series multimedia museum works, showing intersections between traditional and modern art, design and technology, such that the results help both traditional and modern societies. The works show that the wisdom of traditional communities can positively negate the homogenising aesthetics of modern media technology.When: On till 16 January 2014Where: National Museum
Mumbai theatre group Swaang teamed up with city-based band Majma to launch Jurrat: Aazaad Chalo, Bebaak Chalo! campaign in memory of the 23-year-old paramedic, who was gangraped by six people inside a moving bus on 16 December, last year. The incident had set off a nationwide outrage.’We had been planning the campaign from quite some time. We wanted to raise the issue of gender-violence but in our way, that is the cultural way,’ actress Swara Bhaskar, one of the founding members of Swaang said. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The actress was part of performances of songs of protest that included the Maa Nee Meri (My dear Mother) composed during protests post the incident.’This is an endeavour to fight our own complacency as a society and people and not allow the 23-year-old girl’s fight and spirit and ordeal to fade into a crime-record statistic. I became a part because I wanted to. I hope others join in too,’ said Swara at the event launch.Theatre artiste Mallika Taneja enacted a monoact drama titled Be Careful, which drew applause. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix’Jurrat is a lovely concept. I love the name and I am glad I could be part of it,’ said Mallika.A one-hour act Museum…a dying species by Mumbai-based theatre group Being Association depicted a hard hitting account on discrimination and clichés faced by women.’I am glad that our debut performance received such a great response. Wherever we go, our play is loved and appreciated,’ said Rasika Agashe, the play’s director.Various music and street theatre groups performed across the city till 15 December. The event is set to conclude on 16 December with a mobile concert performances by Rabbi Shergill, Sona Mohapatra and Swanand Kirkire.